Chronicle The Third – 2009 (1430 AH)
Just: The Way Things Are
So we’ve dealt with the first of five core beliefs Muslims have: that there is One Absolute God. Naturally, the next question is what kind of God is He? Gentle, loving and fatherly? Kingly, authoritative and demanding? What motivates Muslims to believe in Him; to trust and obey Him so completely? Is it fear? Is it hope? Or something else?
There’s a famous tradition from Islamic history that goes:
“Some people worship God out of greed (for heaven), this is the worship of the merchant. Others worship out of fear (of hell); this is the worship of slaves. Others worship out of love; this is the worship of the free man.”
Regardless of which category you belong to, the one thing that you rely on is that at the end of the day, you’ll be treated fairly. Without that, why would you put in so much effort?
By Any Other Name…
“The most beautiful names belong to Allah. so call on Him by them…”
(The Qur’an – The Heights, Verse 180)
You might have come across the phrase ‘The 99 names of God’, also called Asma’ul Husna (Beautiful Names). Muslims call upon God by various names, each representing an attribute, for example: Ar-Rahman (The Merciful), Al-Ghafoor (The Forgiving), Al-Waliyy (The Friend), Al-Wadood (The Loving), Al-Hakeem (The Wise) and so on.
Of all these attributes, the one singled out for a founding belief is Al-’Adil (The Just). It seems odd at first that instead of more obviously appealing qualities such as love and mercy, this should be the one that God chooses to emphasize. But perhaps while we focus on our secondary emotional needs, He prefers to reassure the most essential of our inner needs – that of fairness.
Justice gives everything in the universe a sense of purpose and being. It’s inborn in human nature to understand, respect and feel particularly possessive of this principle. “That’s not fair!” is a refrain that is heard coming with equal passion from kindergarten kids and professional adults.
We’ll talk about why Islam describes itself as the Innate or Natural Religion another day, but for the purpose of this article, we need only look at human instinct to understand why a sense of justice is what keeps a society alive and healthy.
The situation in Gaza is still fresh in our minds. People around the world are shocked by the loss of innocent lives, and the outrage at what is being described as a genocide is a world concern. What is it that has united opinions across race, culture, nationality and faith? A sense of violated justice.
We feel that something ‘wrong’ is taking place, and that we must as a global community speak up against it – even if we are helpless in terms of power to make a difference. This is what reminds us that we are still human on some level. That we haven’t been reduced to a bestial level (because even animals have some basic sense of justice.)
That is why the second root of belief in Islam can be added as below:
I. That there is Only One God. (Arabic: Tawhid)
II. That God is Just (Arabic: Adalat)
All God’s other attributes are dependent on His Justice. In the bigger picture, if He wasn’t Just then how could we respect Him? How would we explain the balance of all things or that innate trust every human being has that every injustice committed in the world will have to be accounted for some day, some how?
From an Islamic perspective, the reason why Justice makes everything fall in place is because Muslims recognize it on two levels:
a) The common meaning i.e. the opposite of oppression, the following of personal rights. The mistake we often make is to try and apply this kind of justice to God and then end up with questions like: “If God is Just why does He let the innocent suffer?” We fail to realise that this kind of justice is flawed even its best.
b) The Divine Justice applied to God, defined as “to put everything in its place”. The entire cosmos is maintained by this kind of Justice. It means that God ensures that the universe (and all of creation) is in a state of equilibrium.
Justice versus Equality
It’s important to note that equality is not a condition for justice. While it’s all well and good to fight for equal human rights, this is a different issue altogether from justice, and especially Divine Justice.
An extremely simplistic analogy would be that of a classroom. A good teacher doesn’t just dish out the same marks to all the students. He/she gives you what you work for. That’s justice (to the best of the teacher’s ability). In the real world, the heart of a whale is not the same size as the heart of a robin, that’s justice too.
Once you believe that God is Just and that He is Perfect in all His Attributes, it becomes a matter of logical conclusion that this Justice applies at all times, even when you don’t understand exactly how it works.
That nifty quality we call hindsight is very handy in getting a glimpse at true Justice. How many times have you thought your world was falling apart and then some time in the future, looked back and thought to yourself “That actually worked out for the best”? Everything is always working out for the best, we just don’t have the capacity to see it all in play.
Our perspectives are limited to our own personal lives and the lives of those connected to us. But Divine Justice has to ensure that everything and everyone is dealt with fairly. We cannot comprehend its scope even if we tried to, because it goes beyond the finite limits of our space and time.
Here’s a children’s story often used to illustrate this:
A man once set out to pray. On the way, he met his elder daughter who was married to a potter. She asked him to pray for rain so her husband’s fresh batch of pots could dry quickly. A little further down the road, he met his younger daughter who was married to a farmer. Her request was that he pray for rain so their crops could grow. The man was confounded. What was he to pray for when both requests were valid and yet completely opposite? So he prayed to God to deal with both according to His Justice.
The tale, though simple, is – like all parables – highly effective. It shows us how our own sense of justice is inevitably biased by the people around us, and also that we can never know how one event will affect others. For this reason, we trust in a Higher Power to make sense of it all.
Life’s Unfair. Is it?
One of the most common questions asked is: “If there really is a God and He is so loving, why does He allow the bad stuff that’s going on happen?”
It stumps most of us. Why would He indeed? To understand this we need to first realise that God didn’t create this world as a little playground on which to place us as pawns and then move us around as He pleases. He created us independent, with self-respect, honour and with one essential quality – free will.
We all want the freedom to either obey or disobey Him. But with every right comes a responsibility. If we want to be free to do as we please and God to lay His Hands off in our personal choices, then we also have to understand that the perfect Balance means that for those actions, we will have to face consequences, sometimes far-reaching ones.
Take for example, a mud slide that kills the people living along a hillside and leaves many homeless. We wonder what the poor people did to ‘deserve’ this. In our indignation, we overlook the systems that reduced these people to living in flimsy shanty huts, below the poverty line. Who created this imbalance in society? Who is responsible for not providing them with proper housing? Or jobs? Do we really expect God to step in and fix our mistakes every time we do something without thinking of the welfare of the entire community?
That is why Islam emphasizes cause and effect. Every action has a reaction. Sometimes the reaction of these actions happen on another dimension (the metaphysical, the spiritual or the unseen), but they always happen.
Like a factor tree, you can trace back every reaction to its cause, until you ultimately reach The First Cause: God. He is the First Essential Cause without Whom no other cause can exist. But every consecutive effect is the result of the immediate cause before it. All that comes from the First Cause is good. It is when we deviate from the directions and instructions set for us, that the chain reactions of our mis-steps lead to our own destruction.
Muslims often speak of ‘fearing God’, which I think is what creates the image of a despotic, dictatorial God of Islam. It is unfortunate that they rarely clarify that what they mean is ‘fearing the Justice of God’ because if we were to be judged on our flawed actions, none of us would ever measure up to deserving the rewards of heaven. They also forget to mention that this fear is always balanced by hope in another famous attribute: that God is also Ar-Rahman (the Merciful) who Knows the extent of our (in)abilities and the sincerity of our actions – even when we fall short – and so He forgives and is easily pleased by the little we offer Him.
The Wrath of a Mother
So far we’ve skimmed over how the injustices we consider God to be turning a blind eye to, actually stem from our own actions, but what of natural disasters then? It’s hard to swallow, but even these are sometimes a result of what we put our planet through: pollution, deforestation, nuclear testing, inhumane experiments…none of these are carried out in contained environments. Can we turn against Nature and not expect her to react to our affront?
However, some of these disasters are part of a bigger system of trials and tests. If you believe in God, then you believe that He created this world for a purpose. In Islam that purpose is to explore, learn and discover Him by rising to the heights of enlightenment.
For this to happen, every so often we need to face challenges and difficulties. The world serves as a crucible for the perfection of the soul. Fear, danger, pain, loss – all these things makes us turn back to God. And if you closely study the truly natural disasters, you will realise that they happen when a people are most lax and have forgotten Him.
These things happen as a warning and a reminder; if we are helpless in the face of a natural phenomenon that has no intellect or consciousness, then what is our position in regard to an All-Knowing God Who created these phenomenon and has full authority over them…and us?
As usual, this article skims over the concept. Volumes have been written on this subject and the greatest minds have discussed it, just as the simplest ones have wondered over it. That everybody has the capacity to understand it at their own level is also a part of His all-encompassing Justice.
As usual, I’d recommend reading, researching and really just sitting down somewhere peaceful and thinking. In the X-files, Mulder always had a poster in the background that said The Truth is Out There. Those script-writers got it wrong as usual. In reality, you don’t have to go hunting too far, because the Truth is actually in you.